Every car trip begins and ends in a parking space, making parking regulation a powerful way to manage congestion and improve air quality. They can also free up valuable public space in urban centers for bike lanes, bus lanes, or streetscape improvements or even help raise funds for these initiatives.

ITDP reviewed parking practices in ten European cities that are leaders in parking policy reforms that have: revitalized and fostered thriving town centers; significantly reduced private car trips and air pollution; and improved quality of life. ITDP presents these case studies as examples of best practices for cities around the world.

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