On Wednesday, National Congressman Jonadab Martínez (MC-Jalisco) introduced a groundbreaking National Road Safety Act to the Chamber of Deputies, Mexico’s lower house. The law was drafted with the support of numerous NGOs, insurance companies and public officials of different levels and branches of government.
Even though some important milestones have been achieved at the local level, such as the Vision Zero policy or the Comprehensive Road Safety Program (PISVI), both already in place in Mexico City, a national policy framework has yet to be put in place. This is an enormous opportunity for Mexican legislators to show their leadership and address the underlying causes of more than 17,000 traffic related fatalities each year, and many more injuries. It is unacceptable that the first cause of death among children 5 to 9 years old are traffic collisions.
Among other things, the new law proposes:
- Setting up a National Road Safety System in charge of planning, managing, monitoring and evaluating road safety
- Assigning responsibilities regarding road safety to the different levels of government;
- Creating an independent National Road Safety Agency in charge of managing the System
- Setting up a Road Safety Fund
- Establishing the benchmarks for the state-level road safety programs
- Defining the guiding principles for street design, including complete streets, universal accessibility, safe crossings, traffic calming measures, and speed reduction, as well as road safety audits
- Enhancing the safety standards for vehicles
- Defining the hierarchy of street users according to their vulnerability level
- Addressing the pre-hospitalization protocols that first responders must follow
The Act has been sent to the legislative committees where it will be reviewed. It was co-signed by over 100 congressmen and congresswomen from all the major political parties. Now it is time to continue giving technical input to those in charge of reviewing before the final vote in order to have the best version of the Act approved as quickly as possible.
The passing of the Act will drive major changes and improvements to Mexico’s road infrastructure that will shift the focus away from the car and towards the pedestrian. This will create safer, more inviting spaces for pedestrians and in turn, more inclusive cities across the country. This national law follows Mexico City’s new leadership in parking reform, and is a major win in working towards a better future for Mexican cities.
Due to the earthquake in Mexico, we have rescheduled this webinar. The new date and time is:
Thursday, October 26, 2017
10am (CDMX time).
About the Webinar
ITDP has been working to reform parking policies worldwide for over a decade as a way to shift cities toward sustainable transport. In July 2017, Mexico City Mayor Miguel Ángel Mancera announced changes in the construction code that would curtail the development of further off-street parking development. The new norm changes minimum parking requirements to maximums and puts Mexico City, the largest city in North America, far ahead of other cities in its commitment to prioritizing people over cars.
As cities grow, street space and real estate are becoming ever more valuable. However, outdated land use regulations still require developers to build huge amounts of parking for residential and commercial buildings, regardless of factors such as car ownership, proximity to transit, and market demand. This led to a host of negative consequences, including incentivizing driving, generated unwanted congestion, and reducing the space available for more important purposes, such as housing, transit, and public space.
ITDP Mexico has been at the forefront of advocating for rational changes to parking regulations. Through a cooperation with the Ministry of Urban Development and Housing (SEDUVI), the ITDP Mexico team developed the seminal report Less Parking, More City that compiled strong evidence for changing construction regulations. More than 40% of new developments in the city center was being allocated for off-street parking rather than other desirable uses. This stark preference in the codes for parking was counter to the aim of creating a more inclusive and equitable city, leading the Mayor to change course.
This webinar will discuss the findings of Less Parking, More City, how the land use regulations in Mexico City were changed, the process of raising awareness about off-street parking and lessons that could be useful to other cities.
About the Presenters
Bernardo Baranda | ITDP Regional Director, Latin America
Bernardo oversees ITDP programs in Latin America and has been deeply involved implementing global best practices in sustainable transport for over a decade. Bernardo has been involved in urban sustainable mobility projects in the private and non-governmental sectors. He is also a professor at Centro University in Mexico.
Bernardo holds master’s degrees in Transport Engineering from IHE-TU in Delft, The Netherlands, and in Management and Implementation of Development Projects from UMIST in Manchester, United Kingdom. He also holds a bachelor’s degree in Civil Engineering from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM).
Andrés Sañudo | Founder and Head of Espacio Justo
Andrés Sañudo is the Founder and Head of Espacio Justo, a long-term real estate investment vehicle in Mexico that helps reduce spatial inequality while keeping attractive levels of returns for investors. He worked at the ITDP Mexico City office from 2011 to 2015, where he oversaw local efforts to reform on- and off-street parking. He was the lead coordinator of ITDPs off-street parking reform campaign “Less Parking, More City.”
Andrés holds an Msc in International Real Estate and Planning from the Bartlett School of Planning at the University College London in the United Kingdom. He earned his Bachelor’s in Applied Mathematics at ITAM in Mexico City.
This post is available in Spanish on ITDP Mexico’s website here.
On July 11, Miguel Ángel Mancera, Mayor of Mexico City announced the “limitation of parking spaces in the city construction code”. This new norm changes minimum parking requirements to maximum depending on the land use of the construction. This puts Mexico City, the largest city in North America, far ahead of American cities in this commitment improving land use, prioritizing people over cars.
As our cities grow, street space and real estate are becoming ever more valuable commodities. However, outdated regulations still require developers to build huge amounts of parking for residential and commercial buildings, regardless of factors such as car ownership, proximity to transit, and market demand. This has a whole host of negative consequences, including incentivizing driving, creating congestion, and reducing the space available for more important purposes, such as housing, transit, and public space. In the past week, there have been several great pieces written on the importance of this change, particularly in how it related to affordable housing, a growing need in nearly every major city.
For housing, the limit is 3 parking spaces per unit no matter its size, and for offices bigger than 100 square meters, the limit is 1 parking space per every 30 square meters. It also considers mandatory space for bicycle parking and the creation of a Fund to Improve Mass Transit that the developers must pay as they approach the maximums in the Central area of Mexico City. More details for this new regulation can be found here (in Spanish).
This major policy change is a result of ITDP Mexico’s advocacy over the last 10 years, when we began working with government agencies to develop alternatives to the private car, as well as mechanisms to reduce its use. To achieve this, the rational management of parking was key. So in 2014, with the support of the Ministry of Urban Development and Housing (SEDUVI), the research study “Less parking, more city” (“Menos cajones, más ciudad”) was born providing enough evidence to show the need of a change of paradigm. This study evolved into a proposal to modify the Construction Code that ITDP delivered to Mexico City’s Government in 2015.
Less Parking, More City gathered evidence of unsustainable trends for the city such as more square meters are being built for parking spaces than for housing. In other words, we are constructing buildings to allocate cars, while we are sending people to live in the periphery of the city, far away from their jobs, their families, and their everyday lives. This clearly goes against our aim of the inclusive and equitable cities.
Another finding of the study is that more than 40% of everything built in Mexico City is parking spaces, above any other land use including housing. In average a parking space requires between 27 m2 and 150,000 mexican pesos (about 8,500 USD) of direct constructions costs (a conservative estimate). In the 251 big real estate projects analyzed between 2009 and 2013, more than 250,000 parking spaces were constructed, with an estimated cost of 37,000 Million pesos. With that money 18 lines of Bus Rapid Transit (Metrobús in Mexico City) lines could have been built to move more than 3 million users per day.
On the other side, statistically, the demand per parking space is lower than that previously mandated by minimum parking requirements. When comparing the quantity of parking spaces in the projects, we noted that in the great majority of cases, builders try to get as close as possible to the minimum required. 67.7% of the cases studied devoted less than 10% of parking spaces above the bare minimum required.
Besides this, it is important to note that due to the size and dimensions of the land and projects, it is very difficult for developers to make exactly the bare minimum quantity required, so it usually actually turns out to be greater than this. For example, a development has a minimum of 90 parking spaces allowed, but logistically the project needs at least 3 stories for parking with a capacity for 40 parking spaces on each, so it makes economical sense for the developer to just build the 120 parking spaces.
Once this kind of evidence was gathered and the best international practices were studied, the cooperation between agencies and individuals among a diversity of areas has been necessary for the implementation of this proposal. It is important to highlight that this collaborative dynamic could function as a replicable model for the implementation of positive public policies in our cities. This collaboration was aided with a contest to rethink parking lots; an idea from the Mexican Institute for Competitiveness (IMCO), with the support of strategic allies coming from private companies, civil society organizations, and a multidisciplinary jury of prestigious members: architects, urban planners, economists and public policy experts. During the award ceremony, in February of this year, the City’s Mayor announced the need to reform the current Car Parking Norm, as part of his mobility and development government strategy for a more people-centered City.
A change of policy of this importance is not the work of a single individual or institution. ITDP Mexico supported the Ministry of Urban Development and Housing, and the Ministry of Mobility in the process of technical discussion with the different important guilds that are essential in the on-the-ground implications of this, such as the Real Estate Association (ADI). At the same time, agreements were made with the National Association of Supermarkets, Convenience and Departments Stores and also with the National Chamber of the Industry of Development and Promotion of Housing with the best of intentions to reach win-win agreements. The Legislative Assembly also recognized the need to reform the policy, and the role of civil society was incredibly important. Bicitekas, WRI, editorial house Arquine and, of course, IMCO, were all key to creating this more powerful, cross-cutting and lasting public policy.
To reduce the need to build parking spaces is a fundamental step in the right direction, and opens up the opportunity for further work and strategies. ITDP Mexico will continue to work with the city and our partners to ensure this success continues, with these next steps:
- Education to the city’s residents on the advantages of this new norm, and support for behavioral changes around transport to maximize this impact.
- Follow up of the direct impacts of the policy to measure variables such as enforcement, reduction in traffic, quantity of square meters dedicated to new uses, such as more and improved public spaces.
- Continue and accelerate the options of sustainable urban mobility, specifically mass transit.
- Empower and extend the program of parking meters EcoParq, a natural and necessary ally of this change.
- Find mechanisms to allow for more supply of housing at accessible prices in the central areas of the City, ensuring that developers take full advantage of this goals of this policy.
While some world leaders deny that our climate is changing, Mexico City is sinking.
Increased heat and drought, exacerbated by the emissions of millions of vehicles in the world’s most congested city, are worsening water shortages in Mexico’s capital. As drilling goes deeper and deeper for more water, Mexico City’s foundation is eroding and causing the city to actually sink—up to nine inches per year in some areas. Climate change couldn’t be more real to Mexico City residents who, even at 8,000 feet above sea level, are seeing its impacts every day: a crumbling sidewalk here, a split in the earth beneath a bus lane there.
Unfortunately, Mexico City is no anomaly. The effects of warming air, intensified storms, and rising seas are already being felt in cities across the globe, more than 90% of which are coastal. In Chennai, India last year, a heavy typhoon caused devastating flooding with an increased intensity that may be the new norm. Rising waters and floods are particularly worrisome for Jakarta, Indonesia, forty percent of which already lies below sea level.
With the U.S. backpedaling on its climate leadership role despite major international agreements already in place, cities are now taking the lead in curbing one of climate change’s biggest culprits: transport, which is responsible for 22% of all energy-related emissions. All over the world, ITDP is working closely with cities that are finding new and innovative ways to boost sustainable transport and reduce reliance on cars. Here are just a few examples:
BRT in the USA
As urban areas grow across the U.S., cities like Boston are turning to bus rapid transit (BRT) systems to efficiently provide mobility to their residents—meaning less cars on the road and fewer emissions. In Boston, ITDP is working with the government to implement a vision for what could be the country’s first Gold Standard BRT.
Less Parking, Less Driving in Mexico City
In Mexico City, the prevalence of easy parking is encouraging driving and contributing to massive congestion and emissions. With ITDP’s support, Mayor Miguel Mancera is now pursuing a sweeping and precedent-setting overhaul of the city’s parking policy—a move that will shift more residents to public transit, reduce pollution, and deliver a crucial new source of transportation funding.
From April 19-23rd, Mexico City hosted thousands of people from over twenty countries to participate in the 6th edition of the World Bike Forum, under the slogan: handmade cities. This forum was a direct result of all the knowledge and collaboration inherited by the first host cities; Porto Alegre and Curtitiba, Brazil, and Santiago, Chile.
The concept for the World Bike Forum started on February 25th, 2011, when a car driver deliberately decided to run over a group of cyclists who were riding in a peaceful and organized manner. From that moment on, Brazil’s cyclist community gathered academics, the private sector, civil society, and the government for a series of discussions that would allow to communicate the benefits of urban cycling in Latin America.
During the event, over 170 activities were held, including workshops, urban interventions, and keynote speakers. Some of the distinguished guests were: Janette Sadik-Kahn, Heinrich Ströẞenreuther, Adam Greenfield, Cynthia Echave, Chris Carlsson, Sylvie Banoun, Peter Cox, Florian Lorenz, Soraya Azán, and Rachel Aldred, among many others.
ITDP Mexico participated as a strategic ally of the Forum. Salvador Medina and Marianely Patlán hosted a workshop titled “Transport-oriented Development and Active Mobility,” with support of the Inter-American Development Bank. Gonzalo Peón, Mexico’s Deputy Director and José Arevalo participated at a panel regarding bikesharing systems in Latin America. During this workshop, it was determined that ITDP’s TOD Standard has proven to be very efficient for cycling and pedestrian advocacy groups in Mexico specifically during the revision of new public transport projects in cities like Gaudalajara and Monterrey. Meanwhile, transit and planning officers in Queretaro, Cuernavaca, and Tijuana are in the process of applying concepts from the Standard. The land use regulations in those cities demand reviewing the TOD Standard, so detailed observations and amendments to the Standard were served during the workshop. ITDP Mexico is looking to strengthen their collaboration with these cities on this matter. Finally, Bernardo Baranda, Regional Director for Latin America joined a discussion titled Mobility Policies: From Legislation to Implementation, where he highlighted ITDP’s efforts to promote parking reform in Mexico City.
In addition, Areli Carreón, founder and member of Bicitekas, was elected Mexico City’s first bicycle mayor, a recognition awarded by the Dutch organization CycleSpace. During the span of her term, the bicycle mayor will seek to catalyze citizen participation, financial support of the business community, and government efforts, in order to achieve a comprehensive cycling agenda for Mexico City.
During the event, the city government announced Mexico City’s Road Safety Program (Programa Integral de Seguridad Vial), which crystallizes the Vision Zero policy that the city has been implementing in past months, and charts the route forward to achieve a significant reduction of cycling fatalities and injuries, eventually reaching zero. Furthermore, the government also announced the creation of a cyclist insurance called “Rueda Seguro” (ride safely) which seeks to give legal support and medical assistance to the cyclist community.
Which of the two images above shows a public space? Technically both. But they are two very different approaches to what makes a public space, and they beg larger questions for all cities. Which public space is more inviting? Which one looks like a place for all people? Which public space gives more back to its city?
The images show Philadelphia’s South Street, a vibrant mix of shops, restaurants, and residences at the border of Center City’s hustle and bustle and the tightly packed rowhouse neighborhoods of South Philly.
On the left: South Street on a typical Saturday. Although the street looks physically crowded, it is hard to see how many people are actually present, because the entire streetscape is taken up by parked cars or kept clear for those driving in cars.
On the right: South Street on an exceptional Saturday, September 24, during Philadelphia’s first open streets event, Philly Free Streets. As people walking five abreast illustrate, the street is full of life. And yet there are no visible street vendors or food stands, like at Philadelphia’s Night Markets, the typical city approach to draw pedestrian crowds. The people are not holding protest signs, nor are they dressed in costumes as part of a parade. They are simply walking down the street, in the middle of the street. That is the power of open streets.
Open Streets are Public Spaces Brought to Life
What is the purpose of an open streets event? At first glance, walking down a street might seem redundant. After all, most urban streets have sidewalks. But prioritizing street space for people-powered movement speaks to a much deeper purpose than simply changing the use of a street. When people walk, they exercise without thinking about it, become less stressed, and add years to their lives. When people walk in the street without fear of getting hit by a car, they open up their minds to their surroundings: family, friends, and neighbors walking around them; flowers and trees they’ve never noticed before; or the history embedded in building architecture, all of which glides by at an easy pace.
On foot, people can pause at any moment without worrying about parking (or double-parking). They can casually check out a shop or glance at a restaurant menu. Taking a moment to make a call, text a friend, or look something up online no longer becomes a life-threatening choice when made at an open streets event. Without car exhaust, the air will be cleaner to breathe. Without honking horns, conversations and laughter will be more pleasant to hear. Infuse an open streets event with activity and cultural programs, and suddenly people will be invited to dance, jump rope, create art, play music, or simply sit back and watch it all unfold. There is near unlimited potential in the streets that is unlocked simply by putting people first.
Growing Momentum to Take Back the Narrative of the Streets
Philly Free Streets was Philadelphia’s first open streets event, which took over South Street and extended up along the Schuylkill River to Fairmount Park for nearly ten miles. In doing so, Philadelphia joined in a growing movement of over one hundred cities and towns around the world.
For example, New York City’s Summer Streets shuts down Park Avenue in Manhattan for tens of thousands of participants a few times every August. Recently, Nairobi, Kenya and Pune, India have hosted open street events. Los Angeles hosts CicLAvia periodically throughout the year for over one hundred thousand people and across a wide variety of neighborhoods. In Guadalajara, Mexico, Vía RecreActiva gives arterial streets over to nearly two hundred thousand every Sunday, and Santiago, Chile, opens up an entire network of streets during CicloRecreoVía to about four hundred thousand every Sunday. Finally, the mother of all open streets events is held in Bogotá, which started in 1974 and has grown into the 80-mile-long Ciclovía, in which over one million people take to the streets every Sunday and holiday throughout the year.
Although these events are only temporary in nature, they are essential to rewriting the narrative of the street. Open streets are an intervention in the face of a city’s addiction to cars and a real-time chance to experience the argument in favor of streets as truly public spaces. As more cities host open streets at increasing frequencies, more people will be exposed to a new way of experiencing their city. Soon enough, the once-radical idea of people-prioritized streets takes on a mainstream reputation. Simultaneously, the century-old narrative that streets are for cars alone starts to fall apart.
Above all, open streets events let people live briefly in an alternate reality where their city prioritizes streets for people. This alternate reality challenges what people experience in their daily life, and argues that streets where people come first are not only possible but better than the current reality.
Connect Temporary Changes to Permanent Transformations
This new outlook can be accelerated beyond temporary events by advocating for a wide variety of small, incremental changes that share the same DNA as open streets. Examples include converting under-used or dangerous road space into space for public plazas, widened sidewalks, protected intersections, and protected bike lanes. When proposed as a demonstration or on a pilot basis, these incremental projects are much quicker, more cost-effective, and above all, more acceptable to the public than the often expensive and controversial capital projects that takes years or even decades to construct – often with unintended consequences only apparent after completion.
Open streets events can work in tandem with these pop-up and pilot projects by highlighting the changes during an event that educates participants or even connects them along the route of the event to a pop-up. In Minneapolis, Open Streets MPLS seized the opportunity of their event to connect cyclists to pop-up interventions such as protected intersections and protected bike lanes along the route. Afterwards, organizers collected feedback from participants.
Applying this strategy to a long-term scale, the content and projects highlighted by open streets events can tie into a comprehensive plan. This is starting to be the case in cities like Los Angeles, where CicLAvia links up with the city’s Mobility Plan 2035, passed early this year. CicLAvia routes are designed for streets that have been targeted for improved biking and walking infrastructure, which ultimately reinforces a larger network for active transport. By connecting the ephemeral yet mentally impactful open streets events with less press-worthy but more substantial short-to-long-term citywide efforts, cities can be more intentional about transforming their streets by strategies far greater than the sum of their parts.
ITDP México, in collaboration with the Ministry of Agrarian, Territorial, and Urban Development (SEDATU), and the British Embassy in Mexico, recently launched Ciudad Equitativa Ciudad Inclusiva (CECI), an online tool that trains authorities on sustainable mobility strategies. More specifically, CECI, translating to Equitable City Inclusive City, is an online platform that allows local stakeholders in Mexico to design, implement, and evaluate sustainable mobility projects using two principal tools: training materials and a cost calculator to facilitate the implementation of projects.
CECI’s main objective is to expand on traditional workshops and seminars that the federal and local authorities have previously participated in. In order to explore these traditional forums in more depth, CECI is split into five different areas: Complete Streets, Integrated Transport Systems, Transit-oriented development, Travel Development Management, and Urban Cargo Distribution. In conjunction with these areas, CECI offers a set of innovative tools that Mexican cities can use as daily references. These tools include training materials such as practical guidelines, basic learning webinars, and a new calculator, jointly programmed with SEDATU, that helps calculate public contracting costs. The principles earmarked in CECI are gender inclusion, security, sustainability, mobility, accessibility, and community partnerships. These principles will guide the project implementation of SEDATU’s National Infrastructure Program.
Local and federal authorities have been very enthusiastic about using CECI as a tool for capacity building within their technical urban planning and mobility teams. Since its online launch on June 22nd, CECI holds more than 600 active users including people from Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Argentina, and Peru. For a closer look at the online tool, visit the CECI website (in Spanish).
Late last month, nine cities across Mexico held a challenge. In a competition to highlight the importance of non-motorized transit, several cycling groups and civil society organizations held the Modal Challenge, an event comparing travel times between several transport modes as they crossed the city. In each city, participants raced using walking, cycling, e-biking, public transit, motorcycles, and personal vehicles. The event was part of a larger campaign, led by cycling advocates BICIRED, emphasizing the need for more public resources devoted to building sustainable and equitable cities.
In Mexico City, Modal Challenge participants tested a 10km route, equivalent to the average distance traveled in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Starting at 8:00 in the morning, fifteen volunteers navigated through rush hour traffic to the Legislative Assembly building, where organizers recorded their arrival times. The first three to finish all arrived by bike. In fact, in five out of nine cities, bicycles emerged as the winners. The results underscore the efficiency of cycling, and the importance of providing enough safe, integrated infrastructure to allow more residents to choose to bike.
The Modal Challenge is part of a campaign run by cycling advocates BICIRED aimed at encouraging the Ministries of Finance and Public Credit (SHCP) and Agriculture, Land, and Urban Development (SEDATU) to allocate more resources to non motorized infrastructure. This year, the Ministry of Finance, for the first time, included the a new program (PMUS) dedicated to funding the design and implementation of sustainable mobility projects around the country. Building off this success, the Modal Challenge and larger campaign are encouraging the federal government to follow through on this promise and create a robust plan to increase funding and implementation of infrastructure for non-motorized transport.
The Modal Challenge generated awareness among the public, too, calling media attention to the efficiency of biking and the role is can play in the city. Competition participants could use any route to reach the destination, but were required to comply traffic regulations at all times. The event joins a range of campaigns using tactical urbanism and social media to raise the profile of low-carbon transport in Mexico City and secure strong political support for reshaping the city to be safe and attractive for all.
A version of this article appeared on the ITDP Mexico website, here.
Transforming a vibrant and diverse metropolis like Mexico City is no easy task. But consistent progress, led by elected officials and citizen groups alike, is leading to impressive results. On International Pedestrian Day, Mayor Miguel Mancera (above, centered) announced a new Vision Zero policy which will improve safety and comfort for pedestrians across the city. The policy reflects years of advocacy by ITDP Mexico and civil society organizations, and aligns the city with the global road safety movement.
The first of its kind in Mexico City, the new regulation establishes a range of road safety measures that will protect human life and improve comfort for those on foot. By prioritizing pedestrian lives over vehicles, the measures will allow secure, efficient, and comfortable movement around the city.
The new policy is built on three pillars: law enforcement, road design, and establishing a culture of mobility. Measures will include decreasing speeds for motorist on major roads, improving intersection design, and traffic calming measures. Interventions at dangerous intersections are already being planned, with additional policies to come. In Mexico City, approximately 1,000 people are killed each year due to traffic crashes. Of these, about half are pedestrians. The new policy sets the initial goal of reducing this by 35%.
The strength of the law is the result of a union between civil society and government officials. ITDP Mexico has worked to increase awareness of Vision Zero principles among local politicians and decision makers, thereby building support for the policy. In addition, the regulations include input from organizations including ITDP Mexico, Bicitekas A.C, Civita Consultores, CTS Embarq Mexico, CONAPRA, Mexico Previene A.C, and Greenpeace Mexico. National and international experts, such as Jon Orcutt and Michael King, were consulted to establish strong and accurate road safety criteria. The result is one of the most advanced transit regulations in Latin America.
Vision Zero is a comprehensive strategy built on the principle that no loss of human life from traffic collisions is acceptable. Started in Stockholm, the concept takes the stand that collisions are not ‘accidents’, but preventable incidents that can be avoided by systemic action. The policy has been adopted in cities around the world as a way to improve safety and comfort for pedestrians. Using traffic control, intersection redesigns, and other tools, the policy seeks to reduce the number of crashes between motorists and pedestrians, and prevent death or serious injuries.
The new law is a major step forward for Mexico City, and will serve as a model for other cities across Mexico. The policy sets a precedent that puts people first, and marks a new beginning for urban mobility in Mexico City.